Used Software

PluginD3js Globe

This 3D globe is created using the WordPress D3 Globe Plugin. D3 is a JS framework that helps visualizing data in many ways. The below is just a mere blank slate of a Globe. Data could be plotted on the globe, and the entire construct is interactive.
There are a bunch of examples on what D3 generally is capable of here.

WordPress D3 Globe is not capable of all those features yet. Currently all settings are hardcoded in the source and you need JS and PHP knowledge to amend the settings.
However, what you see below can be easily produced using one single simple ShortCode, placed into an HTML element of any kind with ID globe-container. This container with ID globe-container will set the width and height to the canvas rendering our (background and) Globe.