The open source software movement, characterized by collaboration, transparency, and accessibility, has revolutionized software development. However, it faces significant challenges, including the disproportionate distribution of work and the sustainability of projects. This article explores these issues and proposes solutions to ensure the longevity of the open source community.
In the world of software, one of the most transformative and continually compelling movements is that of Open Source Software (OSS) and Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). These paradigms represent more than just software development methodologies; they are a manifestation of a philosophy centered around collaboration, transparency, and accessibility.
The allure of open source is rooted in its democratization of software development. With OSS and FOSS, anyone, regardless of their background, can contribute to the improvement of software that is freely available for use, modification, and distribution. This inclusive model has cultivated a diverse community of developers and resulted in numerous innovative software solutions, from popular programming languages such as PHP to powerful web servers like Apache.
Open source software is more than just “cool”; it provides a multitude of benefits. Firstly, it promotes innovation by creating an environment where ideas can be freely exchanged and iterated upon. Secondly, open source software tends to be more reliable and secure, as it is exposed to rigorous peer review. This visibility allows for more eyes on the code, leading to early detection and rectification of bugs or security flaws. Thirdly, the open source model encourages the development of technical skills, as developers have the opportunity to learn from and contribute to projects they are interested in.
Despite the compelling advantages, the open source model is not without its challenges. One of the most significant issues is the sustainability of OSS/FOSS projects. A common misconception is that open source software is the product of numerous contributors. The reality is that many projects are maintained by a handful of individuals who are often overloaded with responsibilities.
These dedicated contributors are not only responsible for creating new features and fixing bugs, but they also have to manage the community, address issues, and review contributions from others. The sheer volume of work can lead to burnout, with some developers choosing to abandon their projects altogether. This results in software that, while free and open, is fraught with unresolved issues and a lack of ongoing support.
This disproportionate distribution of work can be further understood through the lens of the 1% rule and the Pareto principle, which are both prevalent in the FOSS community.
The 1% rule, also known as the rule of internet culture, posits that only 1% of users in any given community actively create new content, while the remaining 99% lurk in the background, consuming without contributing. In the context of the FOSS community, this means that for every 100 users of a particular open-source software, only one individual is likely to contribute to its development.
The Pareto principle, or the 80/20 rule, is another concept that sheds light on the distribution of work in open-source projects. It suggests that 80% of effects come from 20% of causes. Applied to FOSS, it implies that approximately 80% of the work on an open-source project is likely to be done by just 20% of its contributors. This small group of dedicated developers becomes responsible for a large portion of the project’s codebase, feature development, bug fixes, and community management.
Both these principles reveal a harsh reality of open-source development: a majority of the work tends to fall on a small number of contributors. This asymmetry can lead to an immense amount of pressure and workload on these individuals, potentially leading to burnout or abandonment of projects. The consequences of this distribution can be grave, resulting in stagnation of project development, unresolved issues, and a lack of ongoing support.
Addressing this imbalance is a pressing issue in the FOSS community. Efforts need to be directed toward lowering the barriers to contribution and encouraging more users to transition from passive consumption to active participation. This could involve creating a more welcoming and inclusive community, providing clear and comprehensive documentation, offering mentorship, and recognizing and rewarding contributions.
In the world of open source, the strength of a project lies in its community. By acknowledging and addressing the challenges posed by the 1% rule and the Pareto principle, we can work toward a more sustainable and equitable FOSS community.
The burden of abandoned (or lacking fast paced development) then falls onto the end users, who are left to deal with the problems themselves. This is often justified with the phrase “no one wants to contribute”, an all too common refrain (and an unfortunate fact, as we saw in the previous paragraphs) in the open source world. It does not matter that contribution is not merely a matter of will (many potential contributors lack the necessary skills, time, or resources to make meaningful contributions) – the end result is still the same: Open Source projects tend to be a burden to both the user and maintainers, all while being an awesome “thing”.
Addressing the paradox of open-source contribution calls for a shift in mindset. We must reframe the way we view participation in open source projects, shifting from a model of passive consumption to one of active contribution. This is not a simple transition, but one that requires concerted efforts at multiple levels.
A structured mentorship system is one such solution that could significantly alter the dynamics within the open-source community. While many open-source projects welcome new contributors, the process of making meaningful contributions can be daunting for newcomers (and experts tend to “look down” on newbies, or simply do not care to explain things in a way a newbie can understand). This is where mentorship comes into play. Experienced contributors could mentor newcomers, providing guidance and advice as they navigate the project. This not only helps newcomers become more confident contributors but also helps distribute the workload more evenly among the community. Furthermore, it fosters a culture of learning and collaboration, where knowledge is openly shared and everyone has the opportunity to grow and develop. People starting (F)OSS projects should incorporate this thought at the very begin of the work, to assure later a smooth inheritance and continued maintenance is granted.
Incentivizing contributions is another approach that could encourage more active participation. This could take various forms. Reputation systems, for instance, recognize and reward the most active contributors, fostering a sense of achievement and recognition. This can significantly boost motivation and encourage more contributions. Additionally, financial incentives can be a powerful motivator (but with what money, right?). This could range from bounties for specific tasks to grants for maintaining crucial projects. While many open-source projects already employ these methods, widespread adoption could further encourage participation. Thus, future (and current) (F)OSS project owners should always think about implementing sponsoring tools on their projects, the very least, and/or reach out to potential sponsors, from the very start of any project.
The role of software companies in maintaining open source projects is another crucial aspect. Many companies benefit significantly from open source software, using it as a foundation upon which they build their products and services. I am specifically for example looking at Automattic, profiting immensely from the WordPress ecosystem, but, being a billion-dollar business, contributing relatively less, and only very targeted, to the project. As an example the WordPress Coding Standards (WPCS) project is totally disregarded by Automattic – with the very excuse cited below:
First, it’s important to note that while Automattic is a major contributor to the WordPress project, WordPress and Automattic are distinct entities. WordPress is an open-source project maintained by a community of contributors from around the world. Automattic is one of many companies that contribute to this project, but it doesn’t oversee or control all aspects of it.[…]The specific repository you mentioned, WordPress-Coding-Standards, is a community-driven project that helps developers adhere to the coding standards of WordPress. While it might not receive frequent updates, that doesn’t necessarily mean it’s outdated or ignored. Many open source projects don’t need constant updates if they are stable and doing their job well.
Source: Email conversation with Automattic’s support in regard of the topic. It shows how the principle of “OSS? Who cares” or.. “Does not make me any profit, leave it alone” is applied by big corporations.
As such, these companies have a vested interest in the health and sustainability of these projects. By dedicating employee time to contribute to these projects, providing financial support, or sponsoring events that promote collaboration and learning, companies can give back to the community and help ensure its sustainability. Companies like Automattic that massively and openly profit from an ecosystem, should be encouraged to contribute much more, while leaving the (F)OSS nature of the project alone, and not interfering with its path and plans, but solely by contributing resources
In conclusion, the challenges facing the open-source model provide us with an opportunity to rethink how we approach collaboration and learning. By fostering a culture of mentorship, creating incentives for contribution, and encouraging neutral corporate involvement, we can create a more sustainable and equitable open-source community. As we navigate this path, we will continue to unlock the potential of open source software, reaping the multitude of benefits it offers while ensuring its longevity for generations of developers to come.